Meeting The Paris Agreement

The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time nations have agreed on country-by-country emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the agreement would hurt the U.S. economy because developing countries such as China and India would not be included. In the absence of the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty was limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions. Ban Ki-moon, former UN secretary-general, told the Guardian: „We have wasted a lot of time. Five years after the adoption of the agreement in Paris with a lot of expectations and commitment on the part of the world`s heads of state and government, we have not done enough. In the end, all parties recognized the need to „prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,“ but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded. [11] The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.

[56] If the United States joined the agreement, it would be technically necessary to implement an NDC within 30 days. The NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Climate Action Summit a success by inspiring more ambitious commitments to the historic 2015 agreement and enhanced pollution reduction initiatives. Countries must, among other things, report on their greenhouse gas inventories and their progress against their targets, so that external experts can assess their success. Countries should also review their commitments by 2020 and present new targets every five years to further reduce emissions. They must participate in a „comprehensive state of affairs“ to measure collective efforts in order to achieve the long-term goals of the Paris Agreement. In the meantime, developed countries must also assess the financial assistance they will provide to developing countries to help them reduce their emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change. The Paris Agreement provides a sustainable framework that guides global efforts for decades to come. The aim is to create a continuous cycle that prevents countries from increasing their ambitions over time. In order to encourage increased ambitions, the agreement defines two interconnected processes, each with a five-year cycle.

The first is a „comprehensive state of affairs“ to assess the collective progress made in achieving the long-term goals of the agreement.